Commonly Asked Questions about Addiction and Treatment
Facts about fentanyl
Fentanyl is a powerful synthetic opioid analgesic that has garnered significant attention in recent years due to its role in the opioid crisis. Here are some essential facts about fentanyl:
Potency: Fentanyl is estimated to be 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine and 25 to 50 times more potent than heroin. Due to its high potency, it is prescribed in micrograms (mcg) rather than the milligrams (mg) typically used for other opioids.
Medical use: Fentanyl is primarily used in medical settings to manage severe pain, such as chronic pain or breakthrough pain in cancer patients. It is also used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures. Fentanyl is available in various forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, tablets, and injections.
Illicit use: Fentanyl has become a significant concern in the illicit drug market due to its potency and relatively low production cost. Illegal fentanyl is often mixed with other drugs, such as heroin, cocaine, or counterfeit prescription pills, increasing the risk of overdose for unsuspecting users.
Overdose risk: Fentanyl's potency makes it particularly dangerous, as even a small amount can cause an overdose. Signs of fentanyl overdose include slow or shallow breathing, unresponsiveness, pinpoint pupils, cold and clammy skin, and loss of consciousness. Fentanyl overdoses can be fatal if not promptly treated.
Naloxone: Naloxone, also known as Narcan, is an opioid antagonist that can rapidly reverse the effects of a fentanyl overdose by displacing the drug from the opioid receptors in the brain. Due to fentanyl's potency, multiple doses of naloxone may be necessary to reverse an overdose effectively.
Fentanyl analogs: There are numerous fentanyl analogs or derivatives, such as carfentanil, acetylfentanyl, and furanylfentanyl. These analogs can have varying potencies, often significantly stronger than fentanyl itself, which can further increase the risk of overdose and fatalities.
Legal classification: Fentanyl is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, indicating that it has a high potential for abuse and dependence but also has accepted medical uses. Illicit fentanyl and its analogs are often classified as Schedule I substances, indicating that they have no accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse.
Addiction and dependence: Fentanyl, like other opioids, carries a risk of addiction and physical dependence. Chronic use can lead to tolerance, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect, and withdrawal symptoms if usage is reduced or stopped abruptly.
In what ways do drug addiction change one's personality?
Drug addiction can significantly change an individual's personality in various ways. The changes are often a result of how the substance interacts with the brain and can affect one's behaviors, emotions, and interactions with others. Here are some common ways in which drug addiction may alter personality:
Increased Aggression or Irritability: Substances can affect the brain's balance of neurotransmitters, leading to changes in mood and behavior. This can result in increased aggression, irritability, or mood swings, which might not align with the person's typical personality traits.
Decreased Motivation: Many addictive substances can lead to a decreased interest or motivation in activities that were once enjoyed. This can result in a noticeable change in personality, as the person may appear apathetic or disinterested in life outside their substance use.
Increased Impulsivity and Risk-taking: Drug addiction often leads to increased impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors. This is due to changes in the brain's reward system and decision-making processes, leading individuals to take more risks to obtain the substance, often disregarding the potential consequences.
Paranoia and Anxiety: Some substances can induce feelings of paranoia or increase levels of anxiety. Individuals who were previously calm and trusting may become suspicious, anxious, or overly worried.
Depression: Many individuals struggling with substance use disorders also experience symptoms of depression. This can lead to a noticeable change in personality, including increased sadness, lethargy, and withdrawal from social activities.
Manipulative Behavior: In order to continue using and obtaining drugs, individuals may resort to manipulative behaviors, such as lying, stealing, or deceit. This can result in a significant change in personality, as individuals may prioritize their addiction over their relationships and personal values.
Social Isolation: As drug addiction progresses, individuals may isolate themselves from family and friends, either to hide their substance use or because their primary relationships are increasingly with others who are using drugs.
Neglect of Personal Care: Addiction can lead to neglect of personal care and hygiene, which may manifest in physical changes as well as shifts in personality traits related to self-discipline and self-respect.
How can a homeless person get help for substance abuse?
For homeless individuals struggling with substance abuse, accessing help can be particularly challenging due to factors such as limited resources, absence of stable housing, and potential co-occurring mental health disorders. However, there are a number of avenues that a homeless person can explore to get help:
Government Programs: Many cities have government-funded programs that provide services for homeless individuals, including substance abuse treatment. These may include detoxification, outpatient counseling, residential treatment, and medication-assisted treatment. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) are two significant sources of such assistance.
Community Health Clinics: Community health clinics often offer a range of services, including substance abuse treatment, on a sliding scale based on income. These clinics also frequently provide referrals to other necessary services.
Nonprofit Organizations: Many nonprofit organizations offer resources and support for homeless individuals struggling with substance abuse. These may include recovery support groups, transitional housing, job training programs, and other services.
Outreach Programs: Outreach programs are designed to connect with individuals who may not seek help on their own. Outreach workers may go to places where homeless individuals congregate to provide resources and assistance.
Housing First Programs: These programs, which prioritize providing individuals with stable housing without requiring sobriety or participation in treatment first, have been shown to be effective in helping people maintain recovery and improve their quality of life.
Emergency Departments and Hospitals: In a crisis, emergency medical personnel can provide immediate assistance and connect individuals with longer-term substance abuse treatment resources.
Veterans Services: If the individual is a veteran, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs offers many services, including substance abuse treatment, mental health services, and housing assistance.