Commonly Asked Questions about Addiction and Treatment
What is smart recovery?
SMART Recovery (Self-Management and Recovery Training) is a global community of mutual-support groups that provide a structured, scientifically grounded program to help people manage their recovery from any type of addictive behavior, including substance abuse and behavioral addictions.
SMART Recovery's approach is different from other recovery programs like Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous, which are based on the 12-step model. Instead of focusing on the concept of "powerlessness" over addiction, SMART Recovery emphasizes self-empowerment and self-reliance. It promotes the ability of individuals to change their own thoughts and behaviors to overcome addiction.
The SMART Recovery program is based on principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. It is designed around a 4-point program:
- Building and maintaining motivation: This helps individuals to build their motivation to change and avoid relapsing.
- Coping with urges: This gives individuals the skills to deal with urges or cravings as they arise.
- Managing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors: This is about developing healthy thoughts, emotions, and actions in place of the destructive ones that can lead to addictive behaviors.
- Living a balanced life: This involves individuals identifying what they truly value in life and building their lives around those values, leading to satisfaction and fulfillment beyond their addiction.
SMART Recovery meetings, both in-person and online, are facilitated by trained volunteers and are free to attend, though donations are appreciated. The program also offers a variety of tools and techniques for self-empowerment and self-directed change, available in various formats such as handbooks, worksheets, and online resources.
What does drug addiction do to a person?
Drug addiction, also known as Substance Use Disorder (SUD), is a complex condition that affects an individual's brain and behavior, leading to an inability to control the use of drugs despite harmful consequences. Drug addiction can impact a person in various ways, including physical, psychological, social, and emotional aspects of their life. Some of the effects of drug addiction include:
- Physical health problems: Chronic drug use can lead to numerous health issues, ranging from mild to severe. These may include weakened immune system, cardiovascular problems, liver damage, lung diseases, kidney damage, and increased risk of infectious diseases, such as HIV and Hepatitis C.
- Mental health issues: Drug addiction often co-occurs with mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Substance use can exacerbate existing mental health conditions or lead to the development of new ones.
- Cognitive impairment: Prolonged drug use can impair cognitive functions, such as memory, attention, decision-making, and problem-solving skills. This can impact an individual's ability to function effectively in daily life and may result in poor academic or work performance.
- Emotional instability: Drug addiction can lead to emotional instability, mood swings, and increased irritability, which can strain personal relationships and affect overall well-being.
- Social isolation: Individuals with drug addiction may withdraw from social activities, hobbies, or relationships, leading to isolation and loneliness. They may also prioritize drug-seeking behaviors over other aspects of their life, further damaging social connections.
- Financial difficulties: The cost of obtaining drugs, combined with reduced work performance or job loss, can lead to financial strain and potentially result in homelessness or dependence on others for support.
- Legal problems: Drug addiction may increase the likelihood of engaging in illegal activities, such as theft or drug trafficking, to support drug use. This can lead to arrest, incarceration, or other legal consequences.
- Increased risk of overdose: Chronic drug use increases the risk of accidental overdose, which can result in severe health complications or death.
- Family and relationship issues: Drug addiction can strain family relationships and lead to instability within the household, as well as negatively impact the emotional and physical well-being of children in the family.
Are some individuals genetically predisposed to drug and alcohol addiction?
Yes, research indicates that genetic factors can play a significant role in an individual's susceptibility to drug and alcohol addiction, although they are only part of the picture. It's estimated that genetics account for approximately 40-60% of a person's vulnerability to addiction, with the remaining risk coming from environmental and psychological factors.
Here's a closer look at the role of genetics in substance use disorders:
Genetic Predisposition: Certain genetic variations can influence how an individual reacts to drugs or alcohol. For example, some people might experience a more intense "high," or they might not get unpleasant side effects that deter others from continued use. These genetic differences can increase the likelihood of repeated use and, ultimately, addiction.
Co-occurring Disorders: Genetic factors can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder. Individuals with these conditions are often at a higher risk for substance abuse and addiction, creating a potential link between genetic predisposition to these mental health conditions and increased risk for addiction.
Family History: A family history of addiction can indicate a possible genetic predisposition. If close relatives, such as parents or siblings, have struggled with addiction, an individual may be more likely to develop a substance use disorder. However, a family history of addiction also often comes with certain environmental factors that can increase risk, such as exposure to substance use at a young age or a lack of stable, supportive family structures.
Epigenetics: Epigenetics, or changes in gene expression due to experiences and environment, can also play a role in addiction. For instance, exposure to high levels of stress or trauma can cause changes in the way genes function, potentially increasing susceptibility to addiction.
However, it's essential to understand that while genetics can increase the risk for addiction, they do not determine destiny. Environmental factors such as exposure to drugs, family environment, peer influences, and individual resilience can heavily influence whether a person with a genetic predisposition will develop a substance use disorder. Furthermore, effective prevention and treatment strategies can help individuals at risk for or struggling with addiction to lead healthy, fulfilling lives.