Commonly Asked Questions about Addiction and Treatment
Why do drug addicts do what they do?
"People with substance use disorders engage in their behavior for various reasons, often complex and interconnected. Understanding these reasons is crucial to treating addiction. Here are some common factors:
Pleasure Seeking: Drugs often produce intense feelings of pleasure, euphoria, or relief from pain. The initial high can be so powerful that individuals continue using the substance to experience that feeling again.
Escape or Self-Medication: Many people use drugs as a way to escape from reality or cope with difficult feelings, trauma, stress, or mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, or PTSD. Drugs can temporarily dull these feelings, but they do not address the root cause of the distress.
Physical Dependence: Over time, the body can develop a physical dependence on the substance, requiring it to function normally. Without the substance, the individual may experience unpleasant or even life-threatening withdrawal symptoms.
Psychological Dependence: Even after physical dependence is managed, psychological cravings can persist. The desire to use drugs can become a powerful mental urge that dominates a person's thoughts and behaviors.
Peer Pressure or Social Influence: The influence of friends or social circles where drug use is common can encourage initial use or ongoing abuse of drugs.
Genetic Factors and Early Exposure: Genetics can play a role in vulnerability to addiction, as can exposure to drugs at a young age or in the prenatal period.
Lack of Coping Mechanisms: Without healthy coping strategies for life's stresses and challenges, some people turn to drugs as a way of dealing with these issues.
Changes in Brain Function: Long-term substance use can lead to changes in the brain that result in increased cravings and decreased ability to resist drug use, despite harmful consequences.
Why can't a person just simply stop abusing drugs?
Drug addiction, often referred to as Substance Use Disorder (SUD) in the mental health field, is a complex condition characterized by compulsive drug use despite harmful consequences. It's considered a brain disease because drugs change the brain's structure and how it works, leading to changes that can persist long after the cessation of drug use. Here are several reasons why it's not simply a matter of willpower to stop using drugs:
Physical Dependence: Repeated drug use can lead to physical dependence, where the body adapts to the drug and requires it to function normally. Abruptly stopping the drug can lead to withdrawal symptoms, which can be uncomfortable or even dangerous, creating a compelling reason to continue using the drug.
Changes in Brain Function: Drug use can disrupt critical brain areas involved in reward, motivation, learning, judgment, and memory. This can lead to intense cravings for the drug and impaired ability to resist drug use, even in the face of negative consequences.
Co-occurring Mental Health Disorders: Many individuals with substance use disorders also have other mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. These individuals may use drugs as a way to self-medicate, making it difficult to stop without treating the underlying condition.
Environmental Factors: Social and environmental cues can trigger cravings and make it difficult to avoid substance use. This can include things like spending time with friends who use drugs, living in a stressful or chaotic environment, or even visiting places where they used to use drugs.
Psychological Factors: Some individuals may use drugs to cope with stress, trauma, or other adverse experiences. Without healthier coping mechanisms and support, it can be very challenging to stop using drugs.
It's essential to understand that addiction is a chronic disease, similar to diabetes or heart disease, and not a moral failing or lack of discipline. Just as with other chronic diseases, treatment often isn't a matter of simply deciding to stop. It usually involves medical intervention, behavioral therapies, and long-term support. With the right treatment and support, recovery from addiction is entirely possible.
What is a medical detox?
Medical detox, also known as medically supervised detoxification, is the process of safely managing the physical symptoms of withdrawal from substances like alcohol, opioids, or other drugs under the supervision of healthcare professionals. This process is typically the first step in a comprehensive treatment plan for substance use disorders.
The goal of medical detox is to minimize the physical harm caused by withdrawal and to alleviate discomfort. Here's what it typically involves:
Evaluation: This first step includes a thorough assessment of the individual's physical and mental health, as well as the extent and nature of their substance use. This information is used to design an appropriate and personalized detox and treatment plan.
Stabilization: During this phase, medical professionals administer treatment to manage withdrawal symptoms and ensure the patient's safety. This may involve the use of medications to ease symptoms and prevent complications. Medical staff monitor the patient's vital signs like heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature, and may provide nutritional support and hydration as needed.
Preparation for Further Treatment: Once the acute phase of detox is complete, the focus shifts to preparing the individual for further treatment, such as inpatient or outpatient rehab. This may involve counseling or therapy to help the individual understand the importance of continuing treatment to maintain long-term recovery.