Commonly Asked Questions about Addiction and Treatment
How does a person become addicted to drugs and alcohol?
Addiction to drugs and alcohol is a complex process involving a combination of genetic, environmental, psychological, and social factors. While not everyone who uses drugs or alcohol will become addicted, certain factors can increase an individual's vulnerability to addiction. Some key factors contributing to addiction include:
- Genetic predisposition: Genetics play a significant role in addiction, accounting for an estimated 40-60% of an individual's vulnerability. People with a family history of addiction may be more susceptible to developing a substance use disorder.
- Environmental influences: A person's environment can significantly impact their likelihood of developing an addiction. Factors such as exposure to drugs or alcohol, peer pressure, low socioeconomic status, and lack of parental supervision can contribute to substance use and potential addiction.
- Early initiation: Research indicates that individuals who begin using drugs or alcohol at an early age are at a higher risk of developing addiction later in life. Early exposure to substances can disrupt normal brain development, making it more challenging to resist addictive behaviors.
- Psychological factors: Mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or trauma-related disorders, can increase the risk of addiction. Individuals may turn to drugs or alcohol as a coping mechanism for managing emotional distress, which can lead to dependence and addiction.
- Social factors: Social isolation, lack of support networks, or unhealthy relationships can contribute to addiction. Individuals may use drugs or alcohol to fill a void or establish connections with others, increasing their risk of developing a substance use disorder.
- Chronic use: Repeated exposure to drugs or alcohol can lead to physiological changes in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Over time, these changes can result in the development of tolerance, dependence, and ultimately addiction.
- Route of administration: The method by which a substance is consumed can impact the likelihood of addiction. Faster-acting routes of administration, such as injecting, smoking, or snorting, can lead to a more rapid onset of pleasurable effects, increasing the risk of addiction.
What is smart recovery?
SMART Recovery (Self-Management and Recovery Training) is a global community of mutual-support groups that provide a structured, scientifically grounded program to help people manage their recovery from any type of addictive behavior, including substance abuse and behavioral addictions.
SMART Recovery's approach is different from other recovery programs like Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous, which are based on the 12-step model. Instead of focusing on the concept of "powerlessness" over addiction, SMART Recovery emphasizes self-empowerment and self-reliance. It promotes the ability of individuals to change their own thoughts and behaviors to overcome addiction.
The SMART Recovery program is based on principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. It is designed around a 4-point program:
- Building and maintaining motivation: This helps individuals to build their motivation to change and avoid relapsing.
- Coping with urges: This gives individuals the skills to deal with urges or cravings as they arise.
- Managing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors: This is about developing healthy thoughts, emotions, and actions in place of the destructive ones that can lead to addictive behaviors.
- Living a balanced life: This involves individuals identifying what they truly value in life and building their lives around those values, leading to satisfaction and fulfillment beyond their addiction.
SMART Recovery meetings, both in-person and online, are facilitated by trained volunteers and are free to attend, though donations are appreciated. The program also offers a variety of tools and techniques for self-empowerment and self-directed change, available in various formats such as handbooks, worksheets, and online resources.
What does fentanyl do to a person?
Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid pain reliever that is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine. It's typically used to treat severe pain, especially after surgery, or to manage pain in individuals with chronic illnesses who have developed a tolerance to other opioids.
When used under medical supervision, fentanyl can effectively relieve pain. However, when used illicitly or without a prescription, it can have severe, and even fatal, effects. Here's what fentanyl can do to a person:
Physical Effects: In the short term, fentanyl can induce feelings of relaxation, euphoria, and decreased perception of pain. However, it also slows breathing and can lead to unconsciousness or death from respiratory failure, particularly in high doses or when combined with other substances that depress the central nervous system.
Dependency and Addiction: Fentanyl is highly addictive. Regular use can lead to physical dependence, where the body requires the drug to function normally, and psychological addiction, where a person feels a compulsive need to use the drug despite its harmful consequences.
Overdose Risk: Due to its potency, the risk of overdose with fentanyl is high, especially if a person mistakenly believes they're taking a less potent opioid, as illicit fentanyl is often mixed with other drugs. Overdose can lead to severe respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and death.
Withdrawal: Once a person becomes dependent on fentanyl, stopping its use can result in withdrawal symptoms. These can include muscle and bone pain, sleep problems, diarrhea, vomiting, cold flashes, and uncontrollable leg movements.
Long-Term Health Effects: Chronic fentanyl use can lead to an array of health problems, including severe constipation, increased sensitivity to pain, confusion, depression, and increased risk of infections due to needle sharing (if injected).
Due to its potency and high risk of overdose, non-medical use of fentanyl is extremely dangerous. If you or someone you know is struggling with fentanyl or other opioid use, it's crucial to seek professional help immediately.