Contact us now to get immediate help: 1-855-350-3330
Sources: Cole, H.M., "Legal Interventions during Pregnancy: Court-Ordered Medical Treatment and Legal Penalties for Potentially Harmful Behavior by Pregnant Women," Journal of the American Medical Association, 264: 2663-2670 (1990); Polan, M.L., Dombrowski, M.P., Ager, J.W., & Sokol, R.J., "Punishing Pregnant Drug Users: Enhancing the Flight from Care," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 31: 199-203 (1993); Koren, G., Gladstone, D. Robeson, C. & Robieux, I., "The Perception of Teratogenic Risk of Cocaine," Teratology, 46: 567-571 (1992).
Source: Singer, Lynn T., PhD, Robert Arendt, PhD, Sonia Minnes, PhD, Kathleen Farkas, PhD, Ann Salvator, MS, H. Lester Kirchner, PhD, Robert Kliegman, MD, "Cognitive and Motor Outcomes of Cocaine- Exposed Infants," Journal of the American Medical Association, April 17, 2002, Vol. 287, No. 15, pp. 1957-1959.
Source: Hallam Hurt, MD; Elsa Malmud, PhD; Laura Betancourt; Leonard E. Braitman, PhD; Nancy L. Brodsky, Phd; Joan Giannetta, "Children with In Utero Cocaine Exposure Do Not Differ from Control Subjects on Intelligence Testing, "Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 151: 1237-1241 (1997), American Medical Association.
Sources: Bauchner, H., Zuckerman, B., McClain, M., Frank, D., Fried, L.E., & Kayne, H., "Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome among Infants with In Utero Exposure to Cocaine," Journal of Pediatrics, 113: 831-834 (1988), (Note: Early studies reporting increased risk of SIDS did not control for socioeconomic characteristics and other unhealthy behaviors. See, e.g., Chasnoff, I.J., Hunt, C., & Kletter, R., et al., "Increased Risk of SIDS and Respiratory Pattern Abnormalities in Cocaine-Exposed Infants, "Pediatric Research, 20: 425A (1986); Riley, J.G., Brodsky, N.L. & Porat, R., "Risk for SIDS in Infants with In Utero Cocaine Exposure: a Prospective Study," Pediatric Research, 23: 454A (1988)).
Source: Martin, M.L., Khoury, M.J., Cordero, J.F. & Waters, G.D., "Trends in Rates of Multiple Vascular Disruption Defects, Atlanta, 1968-1989: Is There Evidence of a Cocaine Teratogenic Epidemic?" Teratology, 45:647-653 (1992).
Sources: Klein, L., & Goldenberg, R.L., "Prenatal Care and its Effect on Pre-Term Birth and Low Birth Weight," in Merkatz, I.R. & Thompson, J.E. (eds.), New Perspectives on Prenatal Care (New York, NY: Elsevier, 1990), pp. 511-513; MacGregor, S.N., Keith, L.G., Bachicha, J.A. & Chasnoff, I.J., "Cocaine Abuse during Pregnancy: Correlation between Prenatal Care and Perinatal Outcome," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 74:882-885 (1989).
Source: Chazotte, C., Youchah, J., & Freda, M.C., "Cocaine Use during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: The Impact of Prenatal Care and Drug Treatment," Seminars in Perinatology, 19: 293-300 (1995).
Source: Thurman, S.K., Brobeil, R.A., Duccette, J.P., & Hurt, H., "Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Does the Label Matter?" Journal of Early Intervention, 18: 119-130 (1994).
Source: Wang, Xiaobin, MD, MPH, ScD, Barry Zuckerman, MD, et al., "Maternal Cigarette Smoking, Metabolic Gene Polymorphism, and Infant Birth Weight," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, January 9, 2002), Vol. 287, No. 2, p. 200.
Source: Wang, Xiaobin, MD, MPH, ScD, Barry Zuckerman, MD, et al., "Maternal Cigarette Smoking, Metabolic Gene Polymorphism, and Infant Birth Weight," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, January 9, 2002), Vol. 287, No. 2, p. 198.
Source: Montgomery, Scott M., and Anders Ekborn, "Smoking During Pregnancy and Diabetes Mellitus In a British Longitudinal Birth Cohort," British Medical Journal (London, England: British Medical Association, January 5, 2002), Vol. 321, p. 27.
Find Top Treatment Facilities Near You
Speak with a Certified Treatment Assesment Counselor who can go over all your treatment options and help you find the right treatment program that fits your needs.
Discuss Treatment Options!
Our Counselors are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to discuss your treatment needs and help you find the right treatment solution.
© Copyright 1998 - 2017 All Rights Reserved. Content is protected under copyright laws, do not use content without written permission.