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Sources: Cole, H.M., "Legal Interventions during Pregnancy: Court-Ordered Medical Treatment and Legal Penalties for Potentially Harmful Behavior by Pregnant Women," Journal of the American Medical Association, 264: 2663-2670 (1990); Polan, M.L., Dombrowski, M.P., Ager, J.W., & Sokol, R.J., "Punishing Pregnant Drug Users: Enhancing the Flight from Care," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 31: 199-203 (1993); Koren, G., Gladstone, D. Robeson, C. & Robieux, I., "The Perception of Teratogenic Risk of Cocaine," Teratology, 46: 567-571 (1992).
Source: Singer, Lynn T., PhD, Robert Arendt, PhD, Sonia Minnes, PhD, Kathleen Farkas, PhD, Ann Salvator, MS, H. Lester Kirchner, PhD, Robert Kliegman, MD, "Cognitive and Motor Outcomes of Cocaine- Exposed Infants," Journal of the American Medical Association, April 17, 2002, Vol. 287, No. 15, pp. 1957-1959.
Source: Hallam Hurt, MD; Elsa Malmud, PhD; Laura Betancourt; Leonard E. Braitman, PhD; Nancy L. Brodsky, Phd; Joan Giannetta, "Children with In Utero Cocaine Exposure Do Not Differ from Control Subjects on Intelligence Testing, "Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 151: 1237-1241 (1997), American Medical Association.
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Source: Martin, M.L., Khoury, M.J., Cordero, J.F. & Waters, G.D., "Trends in Rates of Multiple Vascular Disruption Defects, Atlanta, 1968-1989: Is There Evidence of a Cocaine Teratogenic Epidemic?" Teratology, 45:647-653 (1992).
Sources: Klein, L., & Goldenberg, R.L., "Prenatal Care and its Effect on Pre-Term Birth and Low Birth Weight," in Merkatz, I.R. & Thompson, J.E. (eds.), New Perspectives on Prenatal Care (New York, NY: Elsevier, 1990), pp. 511-513; MacGregor, S.N., Keith, L.G., Bachicha, J.A. & Chasnoff, I.J., "Cocaine Abuse during Pregnancy: Correlation between Prenatal Care and Perinatal Outcome," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 74:882-885 (1989).
Source: Chazotte, C., Youchah, J., & Freda, M.C., "Cocaine Use during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: The Impact of Prenatal Care and Drug Treatment," Seminars in Perinatology, 19: 293-300 (1995).
Source: Thurman, S.K., Brobeil, R.A., Duccette, J.P., & Hurt, H., "Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Does the Label Matter?" Journal of Early Intervention, 18: 119-130 (1994).
Source: Wang, Xiaobin, MD, MPH, ScD, Barry Zuckerman, MD, et al., "Maternal Cigarette Smoking, Metabolic Gene Polymorphism, and Infant Birth Weight," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, January 9, 2002), Vol. 287, No. 2, p. 200.
Source: Wang, Xiaobin, MD, MPH, ScD, Barry Zuckerman, MD, et al., "Maternal Cigarette Smoking, Metabolic Gene Polymorphism, and Infant Birth Weight," Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, January 9, 2002), Vol. 287, No. 2, p. 198.
Source: Montgomery, Scott M., and Anders Ekborn, "Smoking During Pregnancy and Diabetes Mellitus In a British Longitudinal Birth Cohort," British Medical Journal (London, England: British Medical Association, January 5, 2002), Vol. 321, p. 27.
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