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Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS

  1. "At the end of 2005, an estimated 425,910 persons in the 50 states and the District of Columbia were living with AIDS."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control (CDC), HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, p. 8.

  2. The estimated lifetime cost of treating an HIV positive person is at least $195,188.

    Source: Holtgrave, DR, Pinkerton, SD. "Updates of Cost of Illness and Quality of Life Estimates for Use in Economic Evaluations of HIV Prevention Programs." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, Vol. 16, pp. 54-62 (1997).

  3. "Of the estimated 325,165 male adults and adolescents living with AIDS, 59% had been exposed through male-to-male sexual contact, 20% had been exposed through injection drug use, 11% had been exposed through high-risk heterosexual contact, and 8% had been exposed through both male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use. Of the estimated 96,978 female adults and adolescents living with AIDS, 65% had been exposed through high-risk heterosexual contact, and 33% had been exposed through injection drug use."
    (The CDC defines "high-risk heterosexual contact" as "Heterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.")

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, p. 8.

  4. Research published in the Journal of Urban Health estimated that in 1998, there were 1,364,874 injection drug users in the US.

    Source: Friedman, Samuel R., Barbara Tempalski, Hannah Cooper, Theresa Perlis, Marie Keem, Risa Friedman & Peter L. Flom, "Estimating Numbers of Injecting Drug Users in Metropolitan Areas for Structural Analyses of Community Vulnerability and for Assessing Relative Degrees of Service Provision for Injecting Drug Users," Journal of Urban Health (New York, NY: NY Academy of Medicine, 2004), Vol. 81, No. 3, p. 380.

  5. "Through 2005, a total of 956,019 persons in the United States had been reported as having AIDS (Table 14). Three states (California, Florida, and New York) reported 43% of the cumulative AIDS cases, and 37% of AIDS cases reported to CDC in 2005. In the United States, the rate of reported AIDS cases in 2005 was 14.0 per 100,000 population. The rate of reported AIDS cases ranged from zero per 100,000 (American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands) to 128.4 per 100,000 (District of Columbia)."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, p. 9.

  6. According to the CDC, from the beginning of the AIDS epidemic through the end of 2005 there have been a total of 988,376 cases of AIDS reported in the US. Of these, 454,106 were reported to have been transmitted through male-to-male sexual contact, 242,006 were reported to have been transmitted through injection drug use, 66,081 were reportedly transmitted through male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use, and 164,850 were reported to have been transmitted through "high-risk heterosexual contact."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, Table 3, p. 12.

  7. According to the CDC, from the beginning of the AIDS epidemic through the end of 2005 there have been a total of 9,078 cases of AIDS reported in the US among children under 13 years of age at the time of diagnosis.

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, Table 3, p. 12.

  8. A total of 17,011 persons in the US were estimated to have died from AIDS in 2005. From the beginning of the epidemic through 2005, an estimated 550,394 persons are estimated to have died from AIDS.

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, pp. 16-17, Table 7.

  9. The Centers for Disease Control reported that in 2003, HIV disease was the 22nd leading cause of death in the US for whites, the 9th leading cause of death for blacks, and the 13th leading cause of death for Hispanics.

    Source: Heron, Melonie P., PhD, Smith, Betty L., BsED, Division of Vital Statistics, "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2003," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 55, No. 10 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, March 15, 2007), p. 10, Table E, and p. 12, Table F.

  10. The CDC reported that in 2003, HIV disease was the seventh leading cause of death in the US for those aged 20-24, the sixth leading cause of death for those aged 25-34, the fifth leading cause for those aged 35-44, and the eighth leading cause for those aged 45-54

    Source: Heron, Melonie P., PhD, Smith, Betty L., BsED, Division of Vital Statistics, "Deaths: Leading Causes for 2003," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 55, No. 10 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, March 15, 2007), p. 18, Table 1.

  11. The CDC estimates that of the 12,140 male adults or adolescent AIDS victims who died in 2005, 5,929 of the cases were reportedly transmitted through male-to-male sexual contact (MSM), 3,159 were reportedly transmitted through injection drug use, 1,364 were reportedly transmitted through male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use, 1,584 were reportedly transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact, and 104 were attributed to "other."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, pp. 16-17, Table 7.

  12. The CDC estimates that of the 4,128 female adults or adolescent AIDS victims who died in 2005, 1,651 of the cases were reportedly transmitted through injection drug use, 2,413 were reportedly transmitted through high-risk heterosexual contact, and 64 were attributed to "other."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, pp. 16-17, Table 7.

  13. "From 2001 through 2005, both among males and females, the estimated number of deaths of IDUs [with AIDS] decreased, but the number of deaths of persons exposed through high-risk heterosexual contact increased."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, p. 7.

  14. "Survival was greatest among MSM and among children with perinatally acquired HIV infection (Table 13). Survival was intermediate among male and female adults and adolescents who had heterosexual contact with someone known to be HIV infected or at high risk for HIV infection, as well as among MSM who also were IDUs. Survival was lowest among male and female adults and adolescents who were IDUs."

    Source: Centers for Disease Control, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2005 (2006), Vol. 17, 8.

  15. "On December 31, 2004, 1.9% of State prison inmates and 1.1% of Federal prison inmates were known to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Correctional authorities reported that 21,366 State inmates and 1,680 Federal inmates were HIV positive. The number known to be HIV positive totaled 23,046, downfrom 23,663 at yearend 2003.
    "Of those known to be HIV positive in all U.S. prisons at yearend 2004, an estimated 6,027 were confirmed AIDS cases, up from 5,944 in 2003. Among State inmates, 0.5% had AIDS; among Federal inmates, 0.4%."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 1.

  16. "In every year since 1991, the rate of confirmed AIDS has been higher among prison inmates than in the general population (figure 1). At yearend 2004 the rate of confirmed AIDS in State and Federal prisons was more than 3 times higher than in the total U.S. population. About 50 in every 10,000 prison inmates had confirmed AIDS, compared to 15 in 10,000 persons in the U.S. general population."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 5.

  17. "Inmates held on a property offense in State and Federal prisons had the highest HIV-positive rate (both 2.6%) (table 11). Among State inmates, public-order offenders (0.9%) were least likely to report being HIV positive; among Federal prisoners, drug offenders (0.7%) were least likely to report being HIV positive."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 10.

  18. "The percentage of State prison inmates who were HIV positive was
    "1.3% of those who never used drugs
    "1.7% of those who had ever used drugs
    "1.9% of those who used drugs in the month before their current offense
    "2.8% of those who had used a needle to inject drugs
    "5.1% of those who had shared a needle.
    "Like State inmates, Federal inmates who used a needle and shared a needle had higher rates of HIV infection than those inmates who reported ever using drugs or using drugs in the month before their current offense."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 10.

  19. "In personal interviews conducted in 2002, nearly two-thirds of local jail inmates reported ever being tested for HIV; of those, 1.3% disclosed that they were HIV positive."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 1.

  20. "Among jail inmates in 2002 who had ever been tested for HIV, Hispanics (2.9%) were more than 3 times as likely as whites (0.8%) and twice as likely as blacks (1.2%) to report being HIV positive."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 1.

  21. "The percentage of jail inmates reporting that they were HIV positive varied by level of prior drug use. Of jail inmates who reported never using drugs, 0.4% were HIV positive. An estimated 1.5% of inmates who had ever used drugs, 1.5% of those who used drugs in the month before their current offense, 3.2% of those who had used a needle to inject drugs, and 7.5% of those who had shared a needle reported being HIV positive."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 9.

  22. "Those inmates held for a property offense in local jails reported the highest HIV positive rate (1.8% ) (table 10). Drug offenders reported a slightly lower rate (1.6%). The percentage of public-order offenders who were HIV positive was 1.1%; the percentage of violent offenders, 0.7%."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 9.

  23. "In 2004 for every 100,000 State inmates, 14 died from AIDS-related causes. The most AIDS-related deaths were reported in the South (84), followed by the Northeast (60). Together, these two regions accounted for more than three-quarters of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons, 2004," NCJ-213897 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2006), p. 8.

  24. "In 2002 the number of AIDS-related deaths in local jails was 42, down from 58 in 2000 (table 11). The rate of AIDS-related deaths was down from 9 per 100,000 inmates in 2000 to 6 per 100,000 in 2002. Of the 42 inmates who died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2002, 38 were male and 4 were female. Those who died from AIDS-related illnesses were most likely black (31 inmate deaths) and between the ages 35 and 44 (21 inmate deaths). Over the 3-year period beginning in 2000, a total of 155 local jail inmates died from AIDS-related causes."

    Source: Maruschak, Laura M. "HIV In Prisons and Jails, 2002," NCJ-205333 (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2004), p. 10.

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