DEA Info For Arkansas
The city of Baltimore, Maryland has been noted as a supplier of gram quantities of Colombian heroin encountered in Little Rock, Arkansas. This heroin was also shipped to the recipient through the mail.
Indoor cultivation of marijuana in Arkansas is found in cities and occasionally in rural areas, and each site offers fifty to two hundred plants.
Distribution points for crack include Little Rock, Texarkana, El Dorado, Hot Springs, and Dumas. Cocaine is transported into Arkansas in both powder and crack form. Powder cocaine usually arrives in multi-kilogram quantities, while crack arrives in multi-ounce or kilogram quantities.
The DEA Regional Enforcement Team was designed to augment existing DEA division resources by targeting drug organizations operating in the United States where there is a lack of sufficient local drug law enforcement. This Program was conceived in 1999 in response to the threat posed by drug trafficking organizations that have established networks of cells to conduct drug trafficking operations in smaller, non-traditional trafficking locations in the United States. As of January 31, 2005, there have been 27 deployments nationwide, and one deployment in the U.S. Virgin Islands, resulting in 671 arrests.
The eastern and northwestern regions of Arkansas are the traditional growing areas for domestically produced marijuana, and it is cultivated indoors as well as outdoors.
The use of hydrocodone products such as Vicodin® and oxycodone products such as OxyContin®, as well as morphine and pseudoephedrine, continues to be a problem in Arkansas. These drugs are being obtained in Arkansas through the illegal sale and distribution by healthcare professionals and workers, "doctor shopping" (going to a number of doctors to obtain prescriptions for a controlled pharmaceutical), forged prescriptions, employee theft, pharmacy theft, and the Internet.
Depending on the patient's situation, the first steps in treating prescription stimulant addiction may be tapering the drug dosage and attempting to ease withdrawal symptoms. The detoxification process could then be followed by one of many behavioral therapies. Contingency management, for example, uses a system that enables patients to earn vouchers for drug-free urine tests. (These vouchers can be exchanged for items that promote healthy living.) Cognitive-behavioral therapy also may be an effective treatment for addressing stimulant addiction.
Heroin addiction is one of the most severe addictions to recover from. The heroin addict's nervous system becomes accustomed to accommodating chronic exposure to the drug, which is an opioid. Therefore, during heroin detoxification excruciating withdrawal symptoms are ubiquitous. Withdrawal symptoms begin within 12 hours of not using and peak after two to four days. The symptoms include: nausea, anxiety, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insomnia, chills, sweating, sniffing, sneezing, weakness and irritability. Even though there have been improvements in medically supervised heroin detoxification, patient discomfort and high dropout rates exist today. This has led to the growth of ultra-rapid, anesthesia-assisted opioid withdrawal procedures, which have been publicized as a fast, painless way to withdraw from opioid. Studies have also shown however, that the procedure can lead to risk of death, psychosis, increased stress, delirium, attempted suicide, abnormal heart rhythm and acute renal failure. And, the anesthesia method comes at a high price between $5,000 and $15,000.1
Of all the drugs that affect babies in utero, the most damaging is crack cocaine. Crack babies, as they are called, do not go through withdrawal. But the drug cuts off the supply of oxygen to the brain, which causes different degrees of brain damage. When they are newborns and infants, crack babies behave oddly. Unlike most babies, which love to be cuddled, crack babies struggle when someone holds them. They can cry frantically for hours, and no one can comfort them. As they get older, former crack babies are fearful and suspicious of people, and they get frustrated easily. They have trouble in school because they have difficulty concentrating and learning even simple tasks. Since the late 1980s, when crack babies and other children exposed to drugs in utero began entering school in significant numbers, teachers and social workers have worked hard to find ways to meet their serious educational and emotional needs.
Evidence gathered from surveys in the United States suggest prescription drug abuse is increasing. In these surveys, prescription drug abuse in the 1980s was compared with trends in the 1990s. During the 1980s, researchers estimated that less than one-half million persons abused prescription drugs. However, this number increased by 181% between 1990 and 1998 among pain-relieving drugs. Evidence collected by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) during 1999 suggests more than four million persons in the United States over the age of 12 years were using a variety of prescription drugs for nonmedical purposes. Many of these individuals were first-time users of these drugs. Most of the first-time users were between 12 and 25 years of age.